The term information security can be defined as: Information is a knowledge obtained from investigation, study, instruction, news or facts. Security is freedom from danger, safety, and freedom from fear. Information security means protecting information and information system from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or denial of use of knowledge, facts, data or capability.
Information security’s primary focus is the balanced protection of the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of data (also known as the CIA triad) while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation, all without hampering organization productivity.
High dependence on information as a contributing factor of success or failure, created the need for information security and control. The role of computer networks as an integral part of daily life makes information security critical for individuals and organizations. The amount of personal and corporate information stored on networks, and the variety of threats to that information, combine to form a pressing need for increased protection of that information.
Information Security is concerned with four main areas:
Confidentiality: – It specifies that only authorized user’s sender and the intended recipient should be able to access the content of the message or information.
Integrity: – Only authorized users should be able to modify the data when needed. The confidential information sent by A to B which is accessed by C without the permission or knowledge of A and B.
Availability: – Data should be available to users when needed.
Authentication: It helps in establishing proof of identification which you really communicating with whom you think you are communicating with.
A state of computer “security” is the conceptual ideal, attained by the use of the three processes: threat prevention, detection, and response. These processes are based on various policies and system components, which include the following:
- User account access controls and cryptography can protect systems files and data, respectively.
- Firewalls are by far the most common prevention systems from a network security perspective as they can (if properly configured) shield access to internal network services. Firewalls can be both hardware- or software-based.
- Intrusion Detection System (IDS) products are designed to detect network attacks in-progress and assist in post-attack debatable.
- “Response” is necessarily defined by the assessed security requirements of an individual system and may cover the range from simple upgrade of protections to notification of legal authorities, counter-attacks, and the like.
Today, computer security comprises mainly “preventive” measures, like firewalls or an exit procedure. A firewall can be defined as a way of filtering network data between a host or a network and another network, such as the Internet, and can be implemented as software running on the machine, hooking into the network stack (or, in the case of most UNIX-based operating systems such as Linux, built into the operating system kernel) to provide real-time filtering and blocking. Another implementation is a so-called “physical firewall”, which consists of a separate machine filtering network traffic. Firewalls are common amongst machines that are permanently connected to the Internet.
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