Component of Computer System

Basically there are five main component of computer system these are

  • Input Unit.
  • Processor(CPU).
  • Primary Memory.
  • Secondary Memory.
  • Output Device.
1. Input Unit:

These components are help to user to enter data and commands into a computer system. Data can be in the form of words, numbers, action and commands etc. The primary function of input devices is to direct data and commands into computers.

For example, computer’s or laptop’s keyboard is an input unit that enters characters and numbers. Another example of input device is touch-screens.

In this device user can simply touch their screens without using any other device to enter commands into computer.

2. Processor (CPU):

Central Processing Unit is the main component inside the computer. processor is more responsible for all the events inside the hole system. It can control all the internal and external devices.

processor can also performs ‘Arithmetic and Logical Operations‘.  The CPU have further three elements.

  1. Memory Unit: when user enter data or commands using input devices, computer system store these data and command in its memory unit.
  2. Arithmetic and Logic Unit: It performs all types of arithmetic calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Further ALU can also perform logical functions like comparison of data.
  3. Control Unit: Control unit controls the sequence of all actions by the program and input/output operations. Control Unit controls flow of data within the devices and supervises on the data flow. It manages and coordinates the entire computer system.
3. Primary Memory:  

It also called as main memory or internal memory which is directly accessed by the CPU. primary memory includes various types of memory such as the processor cache and ROM.

Primary memory used to store instruction which are awaiting to be obeyed, Data awaiting processing, Data currently being processed and Data awaiting output etc.

4. Secondary Memory:

It refers to storage device such as hard drive, flash drive, CD’s and DVD’s etc. Secondary memory is used for holding backup data and instruction. It also used for data transportation and for bulk data storage. i.e. Floppy Disk, Hard Disk etc.

5. Output Devices:

These devices display the information and the result of processing data. Common output devices are monitor, printer, plotter, speakers are the most common output devices.

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