Basic Component of Computer | Computer Note Grade 9,10,11,12

Basic component of computer

Computer components are all the parts that make up a computer. Components include software and hardware: the software tells the hardware what to do and the hardware executes the commands. Working together, these components make up a system that can realy commands to a central processing unit (CPU), identify the action needed to carry out the commands, and send the instructions to the component that carries out the command. Computer component work in close conjunction with each other and when one component fails, many other are affected and sometime the entire system can crash.


Computer hardware is a collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system. Hardware consists of the components that do the actual work, everything from turning the system on to performing specific tasks. Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, hard drive disk (HDD), system unit (graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips), etc. all of which are physical objects that can be touched. There are two types of hardware components: internal and peripheral. Internal component are the computer parts located inside the PC tower or the laptop body, and peripherals are located on the outside of the computer. The internal components are necessary to the basic running of a system and all computer have them; however, most peripherals are optional and can be modified by the user.


Software is a set of instructions that tells the computer about the task to be performed and how these task are to be performed. Program is a set of instruction, written in a language understood by the computer, to perform a specific task. A set of program and documents are collectively called software. Software is the principal component because it contains the information needed by the hardware to perform its tasks; without the software, a computer would simply be a box full of parts. The main software component needed to run a computer is the operating system, and program application are necessary for specific tasks. The operating system contains the information that runs all the system’s basic task, form starting up and shutting down to surfing the internet. Program applications contain the information needed to run specific tasks such as word processing, games, graphic editing, communications and accounting. Different software can be loaded on the same hardware to perform different kind of tasks.

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