Application of Computer, Computer Science Notes part-2

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Application of Computer:

The  computer  is  the  most  powerful  instrument  man  has  ever  produced.  It  has  a  great  impact  on  every aspect of mankind and plays an important role in our society. Computer technology is one of the fastest  developing  technologies.  It  has  numerous  impacts  on  the  daily  life  of  modern  society.  Every  sphere  of  life  and  education  is  influenced  by  this  technology.  Earlier  the  computer  was  a  massive, special-purpose instrument/device that only huge institution/organization could afford for complex  scientific  calculations.  They  used  for  lunching  the  precise  orbit  of  Ballistic  Missile  or  spacecraft and processing statistics for the Bureau of the Census and other engineering purposes,

Nowadays,  computer  is  used  in  education;  to  teach  students  through  multimedia,  in  business;  to  perform accounting and financial work, tabulation of results, in office; office automation to accurate reschedule  secretarial  job,  managerial  job,  make  decision,  business  plan  activities  and  organization activities  into  specific  tasks,  in  communication;  to  communicate  people  to  receive,  and  send,  information,  process  their  message  in  accurate  given  format  of  time,  in  bank  work;  analyze  transaction  of  cash  of  several  sub  branches,  analyze  them  for  future  use  to  maintain  and  sort  the  records of clients, in hospitals; do medical diagnosis, to diagnose diseases and prescribe medicines, to perform clinical tests, in factory; to make automatic control of devices, counting mechanism, and its  process,  in  military;  to  control  of  military  equipment  and  search  certain  areas,  to  help  police  in  crime  investigation,  in  airways;  make  the  route  of  aircraft  landing  and  departure  guidelines,  air  traffic  control  and  air  ticket  issue  and  reservation  system,  in  robotics;  to  control  robots  and  its  simulation  that  is  use  for  science  and  technology  and  so  on.  In  this  chapter  these  important  application of computer are discussed below:

1.    Computer in Education

In education, most schools and universities in the world are using computers for learning purposes. It has been proved that learning with computers has been more successful and this is why numerous forms of new teaching methods have been introduced. This enhances the knowledge of computers in our  daily  life  –  whether  we  are  at  the  cinema,  the  school,  or  the  public  library.  The beginning of computer literacy is already apparent.

In  educational  institutions,  the  computer  is  used  as  teaching  aids,  information  resources  and  computing and research means or tools. When a computer is used as a teaching tool, it is referred to as computer-added  (assisted)  instruction  (CAI).  The  CAI  programs  can  be  prepared  in  a  variety  of  modes,  such  as  tutorial,  discovery,  problem-solving,  modeling,  and  drill  and  practice  mode.  The  computer   has   generated   a   new   subject   of   study   in   terms   of   Computer   Science,   Computer   Engineering, and ICT. It is also used to prepare documents, reports, presentations.

2.    Computer in Business 

In the business sector, a Point of Sale (POS) -terminal is mostly used in department Malls, shops and other retail centers to process sale transactions. The computer prints name of the item, rate, and price validated to date and other details on the receipt and issues the receipt to the customer, then the total amount  to  be  paid.  Most  notable  thing  is  that  it  also  updates  sale  records  and  inventory  control.  E-Commerce (Electronic Commerce) is being popular these days. It is the process of selling and buying products  or  services  by  using  an  electronic  medium.  Payments  are  done  electronically  through  the  computer.

3.    Computer in Office

In  office,  the  computer  is  used  in  preparing  the  report,  memorandum,  and  copy  of  advertisement,  letter, publicity, contract, form, note, and notice that is the basic works of an office. It helps the user in preparing, storing, retrieving,  and  displaying  text.  In office accounting,  billing  preparation  of  payrolls,   data   analysis,   auditing,   investment,   inventory   control,   preparation   of   budgets,   sales   analysis  is  also  performed.  In  most  of  the  computerized  office,  word  processing  and  spread  applications are used. 

4.    Computer in Communication

The computer is massively used in communication. Communication is done by email, chat, online conferencing   (computer   conferencing,   teleconferencing   or   audio   or   video   conferencing),   e-fax   throughout a computer network that connects a number of computers or workstations with the help of Internet.  In  communications,  computers  are  used  to  view  and  post  news  on  computer  Bulletin  Board System (BBS), for electronic shopping, banking and brokerage and to get information services.

Most   of   all,   computers   are   the   backbone   of   all   the   telecommunication   companies   and   telecommunication means. It has made the communication faster, easier, and cheaper.

5.    Computer in Bank

Banks use the computer for general-purpose computations, to handle the transaction, to maintain the ledger,  to  issue  fixed  deposit  receipts,  to  make  withdrawals  and  deposits  to  customers,  to  provide  online  service  to  customers  who  want  to  perform  bank  transactions  from  terminals  and  to  answer  customers regarding their balance.

Even   though   handling   the   cash,   banks   use   cash   dispensing   machines,   this   is   mainly   a   microprocessor-based device. The large volume of a cheque received every day in banks is processed by computers. To handle this task magnetic-ink character reader is employed with computers. With the  use  of  a  computer,  the  electronic  transfer  of  funds  from  one  account  to  another  has  become  possible.   The   customers   from   their   preferred   places   (home,   office,   or   store)   can   insert   their   identification  number  and  type  the  transaction  details  on  the  terminal’s  keyboard.  Immediately  the  amount they specify will move out of their account and enter another’s account.

These  days,  banks  provide  24  hours  ATM  service,  where  user  can  withdraw  their  money  anytime  from  the  ATM  machine  by  using  the  ATM  card.  Online  banking  service  is  being  popular,  which  is  the process of performing banking transactions using the Internet.

6.    Computer in Health and Medical Field

The  computer  is  widely  used  in  hospitals  to  help  doctors  in  diagnosis,  getting  information  about  patient’s  diseases,  required  treatments,  keeping  patient  records,  online  booking.  It is  also  used  in  administration for keeping patient records. Doctors can get information from distant data banks and expert systems. They can discuss with colleagues using teleconferencing or online conferencing.

Many  medical  databases  are  being  developed;  they  contain  information  about  diseases  and  their  treatment. Doctors are taking the help of expert systems in the diagnosis and treatment of a patient. An expert system is a program based on the expert knowledge of specialists. It is a diagnostic tool for doctors.  The  doctors  have  to  supply  detailed  information  such  as  symptoms,  medical  history,  and  test results to get the information from the expert system.

One of the most important things is that the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), CT scan machine, eye testing machines, ultrasonic machine are attached or built within the computers.

7.    Computer in Industry

In   industry,   the   computer   is   extensively   used   for   automatic   control   of   machines,   processes,   measurement, and  display  of  electrical  and  physical  quantities.  For  example,  automatic  control  of  temperature  of  a  heating  system,  the  speed  of  a  motor,  the  voltage  of  generator,  the  pressure  of  boiler, testing of products, all is a microprocessor-based computer system.

A  microprocessor-based  computer  system  can  monitor,  measure,  control  and  displays  any  part  of  physical  and  electrical  quantities  like  the  pressure  of  boilers,  the  temperature  of  heating  system,  displacement  of  devices,  deflection  of  the  object,  force,  strain,  voltage,  current,  power,  frequency  output of generators, and water level. 

If any fault occurs on any part of the system, it immediately alarms and disconnects the faulty part from the healthy part of the system.

8.    Computer in Military

The computer is  widely  used  for  defense  purposes.  At  present,  sophisticated  weapons  are  being  widely  used  in  military  operations  with  refined  microprocessor-based  control  systems.  These  are  Modern tanks, missiles, fighter planes.

In  guided  missiles,  tanks,  fighter  planes  or  even  arms  use  the  internal  computer  for  their  control.  Computer’s memory holds a detailed map of the target area. Photographs of the target area are taken and  compared  with  the  stored  map  before  it  hits  the  target.  These  computer-guided  missiles  or  fighter planes are flying faster and turn more quickly as compared to manned aircraft. They can fly into  dangerous  zones  without  the  risk  of  a  pilot’s  life.  In  this  way,  the  computer  plays  vital  role  in  military system.

9.    Computer in Aviation 

In  aviation,  computer  stores  all  necessary  information  regarding  ticket  reservations,  such  as  flight  number, flight route, flight distance, number of seats available for each flight in each class, ticket fare. It  also  stores  information  regarding  persons  who  have  already  reserved.  The  person  sitting  at  the  counter  gets  information  immediately  whether  seat  on  a  particular  date,  in  a  particular  flight,  is  available or not. If seats are available, computer prints and issues ticket and the details of the person getting   reservation   are   recorded.   The   computer   also   prints   reservation   charts.   It   also   gives   information regarding flight departure and arrival time to the customer and the aviation department.

It is also used in the air traffic control system to control landing and takeoff of airplanes to minimize any accidental risk and to increase the number of flight in an airport. The computer is used to control The RADAR system and other communication devices.

10.   Computer in Robotics

In robotics, the robot is computer-controlled programmable machines composed of mechanical body, and optical  sensors  to  provide  eye-vision.  A  robot  contains  one  or  more  microprocessors  to  control  its  actions.  It  is  designed  to  move  parts  or  bodies,  or  equipment,  to  perform  certain  specialized works.  In  robotics,  it  is  used  to  perform  works  such  as  dancing  mankind  device,  walking,  moving,  placing devices in the right places, spray painting, welding, packing, and placing a huge amount of cartons. Now a day, the robot is used in hospitals to perform many works that are presently survived by nurses. 

The  robot  can  be  used  in  hazardous  places,  where  a  man  cannot  work.  A  robot  may  be  provided  with  artificial  intelligence  along  with  sensory  capabilities  such  as  hearing,  smelling,  sense  of  touch,  and vision system.

11.   Computer in Graphics 

The  computer  is  being  used  to  draw  drawings,  graphics,  and  pictures.  One need not depend  on  draftsman   or   artist   for   these   purposes   and   available   graphic   software   packages   like   Adobe   Photoshop, CorelDraw. The computer can draw sophisticated drawings in multi-color in minutes. The Graphics package is also used to recognize a picture, process images, draw a picture, and finally, it can also be modified. 

12.   Computer in Design and Research Work

Scientific and engineering design and research work involve complex and massive computations. In many  cases  simulation  is  also  required.  Design  of  bridges,  towers,  buildings,  generators,  motors,  electrical  transmission  network,  statistical  analysis  of  the  molecular  structure  of  complex  proteins

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